Author(s): Rahul S. Tade, Sopan N. Nangare, Premnath M. Sangale, Minal R. Patil, Ashwini G. Patil, Pravin O. Patil

Email(s): , , , , ,

DOI: 10.52711/2454-2660.2021.00080   

Address: Rahul S. Tade1, Sopan N. Nangare1, Premnath M. Sangale1, Minal R. Patil1, Ashwini G. Patil2, Pravin O. Patil1*
1H.R. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, 425405, Maharashtra, India.
2R.C. Patel Arts, Science and Commerce College, Shirpur, 425405, Maharashtra, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 9,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2021

A neglected disease originated from Wuhan (China) conquered all worlds with doubt and fear. The current outbreak of viral coronavirus disease (COVID-19) quaked the world with the anxiety of economic and healthcare disturbances. The risk of further spread compelled the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare it as a national emergency and other countries obligated the decision with the provincial lockdown. In the present review, we have discussed the various aspects of pandemic spreads, its historical context and the latest investigations demonstrating the current scenario of COVID-19 in the world. Besides, we have highlighted the various aspects regarding the COVID-19 like preparedness and necessary aspects which will help for risk assessment and crisis management. Rapid sharing of scientific information is an effective way to implement awareness and response. In this perspective, we are providing frontline facets that can be helpful for epidemiologists and research scholars for further assessment and real-time guidance.

Cite this article:
Rahul S. Tade, Sopan N. Nangare, Premnath M. Sangale, Minal R. Patil, Ashwini G. Patil, Pravin O. Patil. Historical Dilemmas of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Public health emergency, Management perspectives and Global impacts. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2021; 9(3):345-6. doi: 10.52711/2454-2660.2021.00080

Rahul S. Tade, Sopan N. Nangare, Premnath M. Sangale, Minal R. Patil, Ashwini G. Patil, Pravin O. Patil. Historical Dilemmas of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Public health emergency, Management perspectives and Global impacts. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2021; 9(3):345-6. doi: 10.52711/2454-2660.2021.00080   Available on:

1.    McKibbin, W. J.; Fernando, R. The global macroeconomic impacts of COVID-19: Seven Scenarios. 2020.
2.    Shereen, M. A.; Khan, S.; Kazmi, A.; Bashir, N.; Siddique, R. COVID-19 infection: origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. Journal of Advanced Research. 2020.
3.    Cheng, V. C.; Lau, S. K.; Woo, P. C.; Yuen, K. Y. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as an agent of emerging and reemerging infection. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2007, 20, 660-694.
4.    Schell, H. Outburst! A chilling true story about emerging-virus narratives and pandemic social change. Configurations. 1997, 5, 93-133.
5.    Pradhan, P.; Pandey, A. K.; Mishra, A.; Gupta, P.; Tripathi, P. K.; Menon, M. B.; Gomes, J.; Vivekanandan, P.; Kundu, B. Uncanny similarity of unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV spike protein to HIV-1 gp120 and Gag. BioRxiv. 2020.
6.    Pisupati, B. Science Diplomacy: COVID-19 and Beyond.
7.    Öztoprak, F.; Javed, A. Case fatality rate estimation of COVID-19 for European countries: Turkey’s current scenario amidst a global pandemic; comparison of outbreaks with European countries. World. 2020, 21, 24.
8.    Update, W. 31-Coronavirus never before seen in humans is the cause of SARS. Unprecedented Collaboration Identifies New Pathogen in Record Time. 2003, 16.
9.    Tyrrell, D.; Bynoe, M. Cultivation of a novel type of common-cold virus in organ cultures. British Medical Journal. 1965, 1, 1467.
10.    Heymann, D. L.; Rodier, G. SARS: lessons from a new disease. Learning from SARS: Preparing for the next disease outbreak 2004, 234-245.
11.    Navas-Martin, S.; Weiss, S. R. SARS: lessons learned from other coronaviruses. Viral Immunology. 2003, 16, 461-474.
12.    Campbell, S. K. PostColumbian culture history in the northern Columbia Plateau: A. D. 1500-1900. University of Washington Seattle. 1989.
13.    Offit, P. A.: The Cutter incident: how America's first polio vaccine led to the growing vaccine crisis; Yale University Press. 2005.
14.    Madhav, N.; Oppenheim, B.; Gallivan, M.; Mulembakani, P.; Rubin, E.; Wolfe, N.: Pandemics: risks, impacts, and mitigation. In Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty. 3rd edition; The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. 2017.
15.    Kelly, E. The scourge of asian flu in utero exposure to pandemic influenza and the development of a cohort of british children. Journal of Human Resources. 2011, 46, 669-694.
16.    Laver, W.; Air, G.; Dopheide, T.; Ward, C. Amino acid sequence changes in the haemagglutinin of A/Hong Kong (H3N2) influenza virus during the period 1968–77. Nature. 1980, 283, 454-457.
17.    Control, C. f. D.; Prevention. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS--United States, 1981-2005. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2006, 55, 589.
18.    Shaw, K. The 2003 SARS outbreak and its impact on infection control practices. Public Health. 2006, 120, 8-14.
19.    Presanis, A. M.; De Angelis, D.; Flu, T. N. Y. C. S.; Team, I.; Hagy, A.; Reed, C.; Riley, S.; Cooper, B. S.; Finelli, L.; Biedrzycki, P. The severity of pandemic H1N1 influenza in the United States, from April to July 2009: a Bayesian Analysis. PLoS Medicine. 2009, 6.
20.    Gastanaduy, P. A. Update: severe respiratory illness associated with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)—worldwide, 2012–2013. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2013, 62, 480.
21.    Garske, T.; Cori, A.; Ariyarajah, A.; Blake, I. M.; Dorigatti, I.; Eckmanns, T.; Fraser, C.; Hinsley, W.; Jombart, T.; Mills, H. L. Heterogeneities in the case fatality ratio in the West African Ebola outbreak 2013–2016. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2017, 372, 20160308.
22.    Zammarchi, L.; Tappe, D.; Fortuna, C.; Remoli, M.; Günther, S.; Venturi, G.; Bartoloni, A.; Schmidt-Chanasit, J. Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to Europe from Brazil, March 2015. Eurosurveillance 2015, 20, 21153.
23.    Organization, W. H. Coronavirus disease 2019 (‎COVID-19)‎: Situation Report. 110. 2020.
24.    Lee, N.; Hui, D.; Wu, A.; Chan, P.; Cameron, P.; Joynt, G. M.; Ahuja, A.; Yung, M. Y.; Leung, C.; To, K. A major outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003, 348, 1986-1994.
25.    Organization, W. H.: Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation; World Health Organization. 2003; Vol. 916.
26.    Jadav, H. A. Middle east respiratory syndrome-corona virus (MERSCoV): A deadly killer. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2013, 8, 74-81.
27.    Bermingham, A.; Chand, M.; Brown, C.; Aarons, E.; Tong, C.; Langrish, C.; Hoschler, K.; Brown, K.; Galiano, M.; Myers, R. Severe respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus, in a patient transferred to the United Kingdom from the Middle East, September 2012. Eurosurveillance. 2012, 17, 20290.
28.    Zaki, A. M.; Van Boheemen, S.; Bestebroer, T. M.; Osterhaus, A. D.; Fouchier, R. A. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. New England Journal of Medicine. 2012, 367, 1814-1820.
29.    Sa’ed, H. Z. Global research trends of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a bibliometric analysis. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016, 16, 255.
30.    Cecere, T. E.; Todd, S. M.; Richmond, O. B.: Human coronavirus respiratory infections. In Human Respiratory Viral Infections; CRC Press, 2014; pp 547-558.
31.    De Groot, R. J.; Baker, S. C.; Baric, R. S.; Brown, C. S.; Drosten, C.; Enjuanes, L.; Fouchier, R. A.; Galiano, M.; Gorbalenya, A. E.; Memish, Z. A. Commentary: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): announcement of the Coronavirus Study Group. Journal of Virology. 2013, 87, 7790-7792.
32.    Azhar, E. I.; El-Kafrawy, S. A.; Farraj, S. A.; Hassan, A. M.; Al-Saeed, M. S.; Hashem, A. M.; Madani, T. A. Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014, 370, 2499-2505.
33.    Organization, W. H. WHO Statement on the third meeting of the IHR Emergency committee concerning Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Weekly Epidemiological Record= Relevé Épidémiologique Hebdomadaire. 2013, 88, 435-436.
34.    Zhu, N.; Zhang, D.; Wang, W.; Li, X.; Yang, B.; Song, J.; Zhao, X.; Huang, B.; Shi, W.; Lu, R. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020.
35.    Sahin, A. R.; Erdogan, A.; Agaoglu, P. M.; Dineri, Y.; Cakirci, A. Y.; Senel, M. E.; Okyay, R. A.; Tasdogan, A. M. 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak: A Review of the Current Literature. EJMO 2020, 4, 1-7.
36.    Al-Mandhari, A.; Samhouri, D.; Abubakar, A.; Brennan, R. Coronavirus Disease 2019 outbreak: preparedness and readiness of countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal= La Revue de Sante de la Mediterranee Orientale= Al-majallah Al-sihhiyah Li-sharq Al-Mutawassit. 2020, 26, 136-137.
37.    Petersen, E.; Pollack, M. M.; Madoff, L. C. Health-care associate transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus, MERS-CoV, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2014, 29, 299-300.
38.    Nishiura, H.; Jung, S.-m.; Linton, N. M.; Kinoshita, R.; Yang, Y.; Hayashi, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Yuan, B.; Akhmetzhanov, A. R.: The extent of transmission of novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, 2020. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. 2020.
39.    Coronavirus, N. Republic of Korea (ex-China). World Health Organization. Available at: https://www. who. int/csr/don/21-january-2020-novel-coronavirusrepublic-of-korea-ex-china/en/. Accessed January 2020, 24.
40.    Organization, W. H. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): situation Report, 59. 2020.
41.    Su, S.; Wong, G.; Shi, W.; Liu, J.; Lai, A. C.; Zhou, J.; Liu, W.; Bi, Y.; Gao, G. F. Epidemiology, genetic recombination, and pathogenesis of coronaviruses. Trends in Microbiology. 2016, 24, 490-502.
42.    Saey, T. H. Story one: Scientists race to understand deadly new virus: SARS‐like infection causes severe illness, but may not spread quickly among people. Science News. 2013, 183, 5-6.
43.    Zhou, P.; Yang, X.-L.; Wang, X.-G.; Hu, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Si, H.-R.; Zhu, Y.; Li, B.; Huang, C.-L. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. 2020, 579, 270-273.
44.    Cohen, J. Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally. Science. 2020, 10.
45.    Chen, N.; Zhou, M.; Dong, X.; Qu, J.; Gong, F.; Han, Y.; Qiu, Y.; Wang, J.; Liu, Y.; Wei, Y. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet. 2020, 395, 507-513.
46.    Baltimore, D. Expression of animal virus genomes. Bacteriological Reviews. 1971, 35, 235.
47.    Prone, R. R. I. E. Virus replication strategies. Fields' Virology 2007, 1, 119. of the International,
48.    C. S. G. The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2. Nature Microbiology. 2020, 1.
49.    Dagur, H. S.; Dhakar, S. S. Genome Organization of Covid-19 and Emerging Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Covid-19 Outbreak: A Pandemic. Eurasian J Med Oncol. 2020, 4, 107-115.
50.    Kuba, K.; Imai, Y.; Rao, S.; Gao, H.; Guo, F.; Guan, B.; Huan, Y.; Yang, P.; Zhang, Y.; Deng, W. A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus–induced lung injury. Nature Medicine. 2005, 11, 875-879.
51.    Haga, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Nakai-Murakami, C.; Osawa, Y.; Tokunaga, K.; Sata, T.; Yamamoto, N.; Sasazuki, T.; Ishizaka, Y. Modulation of TNF-α-converting enzyme by the spike protein of SARS-CoV and ACE2 induces TNF-α production and facilitates viral entry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2008, 105, 7809-7814.
52.    Burkard, C.; Verheije, M. H.; Wicht, O.; van Kasteren, S. I.; van Kuppeveld, F. J.; Haagmans, B. L.; Pelkmans, L.; Rottier, P. J.; Bosch, B. J.; de Haan, C. A. Coronavirus cell entry occurs through the endo-/lysosomal pathway in a proteolysis-dependent manner. PLoS Pathogens. 2014, 10.
53.    Wang, H.; Yang, P.; Liu, K.; Guo, F.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, G.; Jiang, C. SARS coronavirus entry into host cells through a novel clathrin-and caveolae-independent endocytic pathway. Cell Research. 2008, 18, 290-301.
54.    Gorbalenya, A. E. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus–The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group. BioRxiv. 2020.
55.    Liu, J.; Liao, X.; Qian, S.; Yuan, J.; Wang, F.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Z.; Wang, F.; Liu, L.; Zhang, Z. Community Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, Shenzhen, China, 2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2020, 26.
56.    Organization, W. H. Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for IPC precaution recommendations: scientific brief, 27 March 20202020.
57.    Lippi, G.; Simundic, A.-M.; Plebani, M. Potential preanalytical and analytical vulnerabilities in the laboratory diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. (CCLM) 2020.
58.    Han, H.; Yang, L.; Liu, R.; Liu, F.; Wu, K.-l.; Li, J.; Liu, X.-h.; Zhu, C.-l. Prominent changes in blood coagulation of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. (CCLM) 2020.
59.    Henry, B. M.; Lippi, G.; Plebani, M. Laboratory abnormalities in children with novel coronavirus disease 2019. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. (CCLM) 2020.
60.    Liu, H.; Wang, L.-L.; Zhao, S.-J.; Kwak-Kim, J.; Mor, G.; Liao, A.-H. Why are pregnant women susceptible to viral infection: an immunological viewpoint? Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 2020, 103122.
61.    Dashraath, P.; Jeslyn, W. J. L.; Karen, L. M. X.; Min, L. L.; Sarah, L.; Biswas, A.; Choolani, M. A.; Mattar, C.; Lin, S. L. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic and Pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2020.
62.    Chen, H.; Guo, J.; Wang, C.; Luo, F.; Yu, X.; Zhang, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, D.; Xu, D.; Gong, Q. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. The Lancet. 2020, 395, 809-815.
63.    Rasmussen, S. A.; Smulian, J. C.; Lednicky, J. A.; Wen, T. S.; Jamieson, D. J. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy: What obstetricians need to know. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2020.
64.    Narkhede, R. R.; Cheke, R. S.; Ambhore, J. P.; Shinde, S. D. The molecular docking study of potential drug candidates showing anti-COVID-19 activity by exploring of therapeutic targets of SARS-CoV-2. Screening. 2020, 5.
65.    Rahmati, M.; Moosavi, M. A. Cytokine-Targeted Therapy in Severely ill COVID-19 Patients: Options and Cautions. Mortality. 2020, 105954.
66.    Gerna, G.; Achilli, G.; Cattaneo, E.; Cereda, P. Determination of coronavirus 229E antibody by an immune‐adherence hemagglutination method. Journal of Medical Virology. 1978, 2, 215-223.
67.    Lippi, G.; Plebani, M. The critical role of laboratory medicine during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other viral outbreaks. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM). 2020.
68.    Chu, C.; Cheng, V.; Hung, I.; Wong, M.; Chan, K.; Chan, K.; Kao, R.; Poon, L.; Wong, C.; Guan, Y. Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: Initial Virological and Clinical Findings. Thorax. 2004, 59, 252-256.
69.    Wang, M.; Cao, R.; Zhang, L.; Yang, X.; Liu, J.; Xu, M.; Shi, Z.; Hu, Z.; Zhong, W.; Xiao, G. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Research. 2020, 30, 269-271.
70.    Agostini, M. L.; Andres, E. L.; Sims, A. C.; Graham, R. L.; Sheahan, T. P.; Lu, X.; Smith, E. C.; Case, J. B.; Feng, J. Y.; Jordan, R. Coronavirus susceptibility to the antiviral remdesivir (GS-5734) is mediated by the viral polymerase and the proofreading exoribonuclease. MBio. 2018, 9, e00221-00218.
71.    Fantini, J.; Scala, C. D.; Chahinian, H.; Yahi, N. Structural and molecular modeling studies reveal a new mechanism of action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 infection. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2020, 105960.
72.    Kang, S.; Peng, W.; Zhu, Y.; Lu, S.; Zhou, M.; Lin, W.; Wu, W.; Huang, S.; Jiang, L.; Luo, X. Recent Progress in understanding 2019 Novel Coronavirus associated with Human Respiratory Disease: Detection, Mechanism and Treatment. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2020, 105950.
73.    Gupta, V.; Bhoyar, R. C.; Jain, A.; Srivastava, S.; Upadhayay, R.; Imran, M.; Jolly, B.; Sharma, D.; Sehgal, P.; Ranjan, G. Asymptomatic reinfection in two healthcare workers from India with Genetically Distinct SARS-CoV-2. 2020.
74.    Greaney, A. J.; Starr, T. N.; Gilchuk, P.; Zost, S. J.; Binshtein, E.; Loes, A. N.; Hilton, S. K.; Huddleston, J.; Eguia, R.; Crawford, K. H. Complete mapping of mutations to the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain that escape antibody recognition. bioRxiv 2020.
75.    Strizova, Z.; Smetanova, J.; Bartunkova, J.; Milota, T. Principles and Challenges in anti-COVID-19 Vaccine Development. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 2021, 1-11.
76.    Kim, J. H.; Marks, F.; Clemens, J. D. Looking beyond COVID-19 vaccine phase 3 trials. Nature Medicine. 2021, 1-7.
77.    Organization, W. H. ‎‎ 2019 Novel Corornavirus (‎‎2019-nCoV)‎‎: strategic preparedness and response plan. 2020.
78.    Organization, W. H.: Laboratory biosafety guidance related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). WHO/WPE/GIH/2020.2. Geneva: WHO, 2020.
79.    Yonar, H.; Yonar, A.; Tekindal, M. A.; Tekindal, M. Modeling and Forecasting for the number of cases of the COVID-19 pandemic with the Curve Estimation Models, the Box-Jenkins and Exponential Smoothing Methods. EJMO 2020, 4, 160-165.
80.    White, A. I. Historical linkages: epidemic threat, economic risk, and xenophobia. The Lancet. 2020.
81.    Chatterjee, P. Indian pharma threatened by COVID-19 shutdowns in China. The Lancet. 2020, 395, 675.
82.    Novel, C. P. E. R. E. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China. Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi= Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi. 2020, 41, 145.
83.    Tay, J.-Y.; Lim, P. L.; Marimuthu, K.; Sadarangani, S. P.; Ling, L. M.; Ang, B. S. P.; Chan, M.; Leo, Y.-S.; Vasoo, S. De-isolating COVID-19 Suspect Cases: A Continuing Challenge. Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2020.
84.    Landry, M. D.; Geddes, L.; Moseman, A. P.; Lefler, J. P.; Raman, S. R.; van Wijchen, J. Early Reflection on the Global Impact of COVID19, and Implications for Physiotherapy. Physiotherapy. 2020.
85.    Anderson, R. M.; Heesterbeek, H.; Klinkenberg, D.; Hollingsworth, T. D. How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic? The Lancet. 2020, 395, 931-934.
86.    Chinazzi, M.; Davis, J. T.; Ajelli, M.; Gioannini, C.; Litvinova, M.; Merler, S.; y Piontti, A. P.; Mu, K.; Rossi, L.; Sun, K. The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Science. 2020.
87.    Selmi, R.; Bouoiyour, J. Global Market's Diagnosis on Coronavirus: A Tug of War between Hope and Fear. 2020.
88.    Jiloha, R. COVID-19 and Mental Health. Epidemiology International. 2020, 5, 7-9.
89.    Wang, C.; Pan, R.; Wan, X.; Tan, Y.; Xu, L.; Ho, C. S.; Ho, R. C. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in china. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020, 17, 1729.
90.    Press, U. E. Uneven Earth.
91.    Konwarh, R. Can CRISPR/Cas Technology Be a Felicitous Stratagem Against the COVID-19 Fiasco? Prospects and Hitches. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences. 2020, 7.
92.    Chen, W.; Feng, P.; Liu, K.; Wu, M.; Lin, H. Computational Identification of Small Interfering RNA Targets in SARS-CoV-2. Virologica Sinica. 2020, 1-3.
93.    Lucia, C.; Federico, P.-B.; Alejandra, G. C. An ultrasensitive, rapid, and portable coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 sequence detection method based on CRISPR-Cas12. bioRxiv. 2020.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Rahul S. Tade, Sopan N. Nangare, Premnath M. Sangale, Minal R. Patil, Ashwini G. Patil, Pravin O. Patil

DOI: 10.52711/2454-2660.2021.00080         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): R. Deepa, S. Parimala

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2660.2020.00030.7         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): R. Deepa

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2660.2020.00082.4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Harpreet Kaur Sodhi

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2660.2020.00083.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Shilpa. S, Naseeba P P, Princy P, Gopika Manoj, Adheena P, Yusra K V, Akhila B Kallada

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2660.2021.00011.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): R. Deepa

DOI: 10.5958/2454-2660.2020.00028.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Manthankumar N. Kapadiya

DOI: 10.52711/2454-2660.2022.00006         Access: Closed Access Read More

Author(s): Vinay Kumar G., Usha N. S., Sandyashree B.

DOI: 10.52711/2454-2660.2021.00070         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Yachna Verma

DOI: 10.52711/2454-2660.2023.00013         Access: Closed Access Read More

Author(s): Hari Krishna G L, Biji Rani E, Bismina Muneer, Christeena Santhosh, Devu C S, Drushya Sadeeswaran, Gayathri Suresh, Janeesha S, Jayalekshmi J, Jeny Shaji

DOI: 10.52711/2454-2660.2023.00044         Access: Closed Access Read More

International Journal of Nursing Education and Research (IJNER) is an international, peer-reviewed journal devoted to nursing sciences..... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.5958/2231–5713 

Popular Articles

Recent Articles