Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder which is characterised by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. It is a disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system and leads to excess production of androgens. It is affecting around 20-30% of the women of reproductive age. PCOS can be affected at any age group varying from childhood to later life. This disorder is diagnosed by using Rotterdam criteria with presence of any two of the following three criteria ie, anovulation, evidence of hyperandrogenism, ultrasound appearance of polycystic ovaries. The main symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome includes acne, Darkening of skin Hirsuitism (abnormal growth of hair on face and body), Irregular menstrual cycle, Polycystic ovaries, Skin tags, Thinning of hair, Weight gain and mood swings. The major complications of PCOS include anovulation, infertility, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, endometrial cancer etc. Management of PCOS includes weight reduction and regularisation of hormone. Life style modification is the best treatment for reducing the symptoms of PCOS. Ovulation can be achieved with reduction of ten percentage of body weight. A well balanced diet also plays an important role in the reduction of weight. Other type of treatment includes intake of oral contraceptives and metformin therapy. Prevention may not be possible due to the genetic predisposition but early diagnosis and treatment is helpful in the prevention of complications.
Cite this article:
Asha K Varughese, Veena Greetta Tauro. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome – An Overview. Int. J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2019; 7(4): 601-604. doi: 10.5958/2454-2660.2019.00134.0