Ponnambily Chandy, M. Anitha Rani, D. C. Nanjunda, A. Chellaperumal, Shanthraman Kalyanaraman
Ponnambily Chandy1, M. Anitha Rani2, D. C. Nanjunda3, A. Chellaperumal4, Shanthraman Kalyanaraman5
1Assistant Professor, Department of Community Health Nursing, Chettinad College of Nursing, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research (DU), Porur, Chennai - 600116.
3Associate Professor, Centre for the Study of Social Exclusion and Inclusive Policy (CSSEIP), University of Mysore, Mysore 06, Karnataka.
4Professor, Department of Anthropology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry - 605014, India.
5Vice Principal And head of the Dept of Pathology, Coordinator Research, Thirunelveli Medical College, Thirunelveli, Tamilnadu.
Volume - 11,
Issue - 2,
Year - 2023
Background: The research about malaria mainly focused on clinical, vector biology, and epidemiology quantitative studies. But the qualitative evidence at the community level remains untouched in high transmission countries. The current paper focuses on the qualitative evidence to explore the behavioral and community health barriers of malaria control interventions at the grassroots level using an inter-continental comparative platform. Therefore, we selected qualitative studies from Asian and African continents which hold major high transmission hotspot areas. Methods: We screened qualitative studies that focused in-depth on the barriers of malaria control measures for meta-synthesis, which were published between 2010 and 2020 in the Asian and African countries. We followed PRISMA guidelines to conduct a literature search on 7 databases and the quality of the articles was assessed by the SRQR guide. We conducted thematic synthesis and quantified the themes to assess the proportion of barriers identified in both continents and highlighted the barriers and recommendations using an explanatory framework. Results: We have selected 8 articles, which studied in-depth perceptions, barriers, and challenges of malaria control interventions in both Asian and African communities. The lack of knowledge on malaria, approaching traditional healers for treatment, and corruption in the distribution of insecticide nets were the major identified barriers in Asian countries, whereas lack of knowledge and noncompliance to drugs due to side effects were the major issues reported in African countries. Conclusion: Meta-synthesis is designed to investigate the common phenomena among diverse settings. In this study, we have attempted to pool the commonalities and contrasts in barriers of malaria control interventions in both countries. The results of the review givefirsthand information to the policymakers for revising strategies and priorities for the malaria elimination goals in both developing countries.
Cite this article:
Ponnambily Chandy, M. Anitha Rani, D. C. Nanjunda, A. Chellaperumal, Shanthraman Kalyanaraman. Barriers of Malaria Control Interventions in African and Asian communities: A Comparative Meta-Synthesis Study. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2023; 11(2):120-8. doi: 10.52711/2454-2660.2023.00027
Ponnambily Chandy, M. Anitha Rani, D. C. Nanjunda, A. Chellaperumal, Shanthraman Kalyanaraman. Barriers of Malaria Control Interventions in African and Asian communities: A Comparative Meta-Synthesis Study. International Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2023; 11(2):120-8. doi: 10.52711/2454-2660.2023.00027 Available on: https://ijneronline.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2023-11-2-5
1. World malaria report. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019.
2. Tizifa TA, Kabaghe AN, McCann RS, van den Berg H, Van Vugt M, Phiri KS. Prevention Efforts for Malaria. Curr Trop Med Rep. 2018; 5(1): 41-50.
3. Lusingu JP, Von Seidlein L. Challenges in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa: the vaccine perspective. Tanzan J Health Res. 2008; 10(4): 253-266.
4. Breman JG, Alilio MS, Mills A. Conquering the intolerable burden of malaria: what's new, what's needed: a summary. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004; 71(2): 1-15.
5. Doumbo OK, Djimdé AA, Théra MA. Development of anti-malarial vaccines and need for clinical trials in accordance with international standards in South Africa. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2008; 101(3): 249-253.
6. Kahl U. Malaria kills over 1 million people every year. Genomic mapping of malaria parasite and mosquito raise hope for a vaccine as well as more effective drugs. Lakartidningen. 2003; 100(12): 1042-1047.
7. Noor AM, Kirui VC, Brooker SJ, Snow RW. The use of insecticide treated nets by age: implications for universal coverage in Africa. BMC Public Health. 2009; 9(1): 369.
8. Taylor C, Florey L, Ye Y. Equity trends in ownership of insecticide-treated nets in 19 sub-Saharan African countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2017; 95(5): 322-332.
9. Rahi M, Anvikar AR, Singh O P, Jambulingam P, Vijayachari P, Das A, Pati S, Narain K, Gangakhedkar R R, Dhingra N, Bhargava B. MERA India: Malaria Elimination Research Alliance India. J Vector Borne Dis. 2019; 56(1): 1-3.
10. Shrikant N, Anil KV, Praveen KB. Strengthening diagnosis is key to eliminating malaria in India. The Lancet Infectious Dis. 2019; 19(12): 1277.
11. Campillo A, Daily J, González IJ. International survey to identify diagnostic needs to support malaria elimination: guiding the development of combination highly sensitive rapid diagnostic tests. Malar J. 2017; 16(1): 385.
12. Curry L, Nembhard IM, Bradley E. Qualitative and mixed methods provide unique contributions to outcomes research. Circulation. 2009; 119(10): 1442-1452.
13. Flick U. State of the art. Qual. Res. 2002; 41(1): 5-24.
14. Bedregal P, Besoain C, Reinoso A, Zubarew T. La investigación cualitativa: un aporte para mejorar los servicios de salud. Rev. Med. Chile. 2017; 145(3): 373-379.
15. Souza Minayo. Los conceptos estructurantes de la investigación cualitativa. Salud Colectiva. 2010; 6(3): 251-261.
16. O'Brien, Harris IB, Beckman TJ, Reed DA, Cook DA. Standards for reporting qualitative research: a synthesis of recommendations. Acad. Med. 2014; 89(9): 1245-1251.
17. Sundararajan R, Kalkonde Y, Gokhale C, Greenough PG, Bang A. Barriers to malaria control among marginalized tribal communities: a qualitative study. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12): e81966.
18. Neave PE, Soares ML. Barriers to malaria control in rural south-west Timor-Leste: a qualitative analysis. WHO South-East Asia J Public Health. 2014; 3(1): 41–45.
19. Oladimeji KE, Tsoka-Gwegweni JM, Gengiah S, Daftary A, Naidoo K. Barriers to effective uptake of malaria prevention interventions in Ibadan, South West Nigeria: a qualitative study. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2018; 5(1): 1304-10.
20. Dial et al. A qualitative study to assess community barriers to malaria mass drug administration trials in the Gambia. Malaria Journal. 2014; 13(1): 47.
21. Soofi K, Khanjani N, Kamiabi F. The Challenges of the Malaria Elimination Program in the South East of Iran: A Qualitative Study. J Arthropod-Borne Dis. 2019; 13(1) :94–103.
22. Fatima Muhammad Mahmud, Saharnaz Nedjat, Haniye Sadat Sajadi et al. Malaria Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Nigeria: A Qualitative study to explore barriers and facilitators, 18 May 2020, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square [+https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-28732/v1+]
23. Silumbe et al. A qualitative study of perceptions of a mass testand treat campaign in Southern Zambia and potential barriers to effectiveness. Malaria Journal. 2015; 14(1): 171.
24. Das A, Gupta RD, Friedman J, et al. Community perceptions on malaria and care-seeking practices in endemic Indian settings: policy implications for the malaria control programme. Malar J. 2013; 12(1): 39.
25. Jaiberth AC, Walter SZ, Jaime CF. Systematic review of qualitative studies about malaria in Colombia. Heliyon. 2020; 5(1): 6.
26. Pell C, Straus L, Andrew EVW, Meñaca A, Pool R. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Uptake of Interventions for Malaria in Pregnancy in Africa: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Research. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6(7): e22452.
27. Shahandeh K, Basseri HR. Challenges and the Path Forward on Malaria Elimination Intervention: A Systematic Review. Iran J Public Health. 2019; 48(6): 1004-1013.
28. Tobgay T, Pem D, Dophu U, et al. Community-directed educational intervention for malaria elimination in Bhutan: quasi-experimental study in malaria endemic areas of Sarpang district. Malar J. 2013; 12(1): 132.
29. Maslove DM, Mnyusiwalla A, Mills EJ, McGowan J, Attaran A, Wilson K. Barriers to the effective treatment and prevention of malaria in Africa: A systematic review of qualitative studies. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2009; 9(1) :26.
30. Ahorlu CK, Dunyo SK, Afari EA, Koram KA, Nkrumah FK. Malaria-related beliefs and behaviour in southern Ghana: implications for treatment, prevention and control. Trop Med Int Health. 1997; 2(5): 488-499.
31. Yé Y, Eisele TP, Eckert E, et al. Framework for Evaluating the Health Impact of the Scale-Up of Malaria Control Interventions on All-Cause Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017; 97(3): 9-19.
32. Randell HF, Dickinson KL, Shayo EH, Mboera LE, Kramer RA. Environmental management for malaria control: knowledge and practices in Mvomero, Tanzania. Ecohealth. 2010; 7(4): 507-516.
33. Hawaria D, Demissew A, Kibret S, Lee MC, Yewhalaw D, Yan G. Effects of environmental modification on the diversity and positivity of anopheline mosquito aquatic habitats at Arjo-Dedessa irrigation development site, Southwest Ethiopia. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020; 9(1): 9.
34. Makundi EA, Malebo HM, Mhame P, Kitua AY, Warsame M. Role of traditional healers in the management of severe malaria among children below five years of age: the case of Kilosa and Handeni Districts, Tanzania. Malar J. 2006; 5(1): 58.
35. Suswardany DL, Sibbritt DW, Supardi S, et al. A critical review of traditional medicine and traditional healer use for malaria and among people in malaria-endemic areas: contemporary research in low to middle-income Asia-Pacific countries. Malar J. 2015; 14(1): 98.
36. iti ZM, Tahir A, Farah AI, Fazlin SM, Sondi S, Azman AH, et al. Use of traditional and complementary medicine in Malaysia: a baseline study. Complement Ther Med. 2009; 17(1): 292–299.
37. Kaehler N, Adhikari B, Cheah PY, et al. Prospects and strategies for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Sub-region: a qualitative study. Malar J. 2019; 18(1): 203.
38. Nofal SD, Peto TJ, Adhikari B, et al. How can interventions that target forest-goers be tailored to accelerate malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion? A systematic review of the qualitative literature. Malar J. 2019; 18(1): 32.
39. Hill J, Kayentao K, Achieng F, et al. Access and use of interventions to prevent and treat malaria among pregnant women in Kenya and Mali: a qualitative study. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3): e0119848.
40. Tarr-Attia CK, Bassat Q, Breeze-Barry B, et al. Community-informed research on malaria in pregnancy in Monrovia, Liberia: a grounded theory study. Malaria Journal. 2018; 17(1): 382.
41. Canavati SE, de Beyl CZ, Ly P, et al. Evaluation of intensified behaviour change communication strategies in an artemisinin resistance setting. Malar J. 2016; 15(1): 249.
42. Nyunt MH, Aye KM, Kyaw MP, et al. Evaluation of the behaviour change communication and community mobilization activities in Myanmar artemisinin resistance containment zones. Malar J. 2015; 14(1): 522.
43. Pilkington H, Mayombo J, Aubouy N, et alMalaria, from natural to supernatural: a qualitative study of mothers’ reactions to fever (Dienga, Gabon). Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 2004; 58(1): 826-830.
44. Iyer M, Skelton J, de Wildt G, Meza G. A qualitative study on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for the prevention of malaria in the Peruvian Amazon. Malar J. 2019; 18(1): 301.
45. Jobin P, Turale S. Choosing the Right Qualitative Approach: Is Phenomenography a Design for my Study?. PRIJNR [Internet]. 2019;23(4):314-9.
46. Guest G, Namey E, Chen M. A simple method to assess and report thematic saturation in qualitative research. PLoS One. 2020;15(5):e0232076.
47. Davidoff F. Understanding contexts: how explanatory theories can help. Implement Sci. 2019;14(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s13012-019-0872-8.
48. Aleena Sunny, Anchu Varghese, Anusha E. M. Anusree K. S., Darshana Babu, Jaimol Francis, Neena Joseph, Priyanka T. N., Roshna Mathew, Sneha Jose, Archana Pinto, Florine Clara Fernandes. A Study to Assess Knowledge regarding prevention of Malaria among adults in a selected community, Mangalore. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2022; 12(3):296-0.
49. Krushna K. Zambare, Avinash B. Thalkari, Nagesh S. Tour. A Review on Pathophysiology of Malaria: A Overview of Etiology, Life Cycle of Malarial Parasite, Clinical Signs, Diagnosis and Complications. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2019; 9(3):226-230.
50. Geetha. P., Bibi Bergin R. V., Komal Rani, Kanniammal V. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Malaria prevention and control among General Community Members in Kanchipuram District of Tamilnadu (South India). Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2020; 10(3):165-170.
51. Roihatul Mutiah, Riadul Badiah, Elok Kamilah Hayati, Aty Widyawaruyanti. Activity of Antimalarial Compounds from Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Sunflower Leaves (Helianthus annuus L.) against Plasmodium falciparum Parasites 3D7 Strain. Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2017; 7(2): 86-90.
52. O.K. Amadi, I.E. Otuokere, C.F. Bartholomew. Synthesis, Characterization, in vivo Antimalarial Studies and Geometry Optimization of Lumefantrine/Artemether Mixed Ligand Complexes. Res. J. Pharm. Dosage Form. & Tech. 7(1): Jan.-Mar. 2015; Page 59-68.
53. E. Otuokere, C.O. Alisa, C.O. Jonah. Electronic and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Characterization of Dicomponent Antimalarial drugs sold in Nigeria Drug Stores. Res. J. Pharm. Dosage Form. & Tech. 7(2): April-June, 2015; Page 143-148.
54. PB Suruse, NJ Duragkar, UD Shivhare, SY Raut , AS Warokar. Contribution of Traditional Medicines to the Development of Modern Medicine for Malaria.Research J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2011; 3(1): 1-4.
55. Pragya Gajendra, Mitashree Mitra. Association of Thrombocytopenia with Severity of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: A Study in Chhattisgarh. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 7(9): Sept. 2014 Page 1029-1033.
56. Mahalakshmi Thillainayagam, Sudha Ramaiah. Mosquito, Malaria and Medicines – A Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2016; 9(8):1268-1276.
57. Syeda Sana, Mohsina Abed. Review on Arakoda (Tafenoquine) and its approach as an Anti-Malarial Agent. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(4):2336-0.