Effectiveness of Fenugreek Seed Paste on Dandruff among Adolescent Girls in Selected Women’s Hostel, Coimbatore
Adolescent has been defined by the world health organization as period of life spanning between 10-19 years .They are no longer children, but not yet adults. Adolescents have got disadvantages they are developing rapidly and having an extreme degree of pressure from peers, from parents from society and self. They lack knowledge and skill to cope up with pressure
Similarly common problems faced by adolescent girls are dandruff. “Dandruff” is not a life threatening problem yet it often threatens your mental peace undoubtedly, you do not wish to be embarrassed by the white flaky dandruff powered all over shoulder, it is not surprising that Americans spend $ 300,000,000 on antidandruff products each year.
Dandruff” is the mild form of seborrhic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin condition that is characterized by flaking and shedding of dead scalp at an abnormally high rate.
Natural herbs are good solution for dandruff and “Fenugreek” is a natural herb which helps in killing a type of fungus which causes dandruff. Fenugreek seeds are an extremely effective and powerful seed which fights with hair fall, baldness and hair thinning. Fenugreek seeds replenish hair growth and are a good source of nicotinic acid and protein. Many scientists have confirmed that fenugreek contains a large amount of lecithin which is a natural emollient and give power to hair and make them healthy and strong. It also moisturizes hair.
REVIEW OF LITERTURE:
A fenugreek seed for curing dandruff is an old method. Dandruff is caused when skin cells are pushed to the scalp and fall off. These seeds are primary fungus removing agents, When that is applied to the scalp the fungus that is growing on inside the scalp is removed, the dandruff becomes reduced it will act on the dandruff until it is gone completely.[James young,2010]
A study shows the antifungal activity of different concentrations of fenugreek germinated seeds extract to check the right concentration methods namely disk diffusion method, pour plating and colony counting method were used our study demonstrated that the extract 0.35g/ml[1 ml of extract and 3 ml of water(1:4)]was found to be more effective in declining the growth of dandruff causing fungus Malassezia furfur. Concluding that, the use of fenugreek extract was functional in inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. [Vibha Verma, 2011]
Fresh fenugreek seeds are extremely effective and powerful seeds which fights with hair fall dandruff and baldness and hair thinning fenugreek seeds replenish hair growth and are a good source of nicotinic acid and protein. [Anamika 2010]
Fresh fenugreek leaves paste applied over the scalp regularly before bath helps hair growth, preserve natural colour, keep hair silky and cures dandruff.
i)To assess the level of dandruff among adolescent girls. ii)To apply fenugreek seed paste to the adolescent girls. iii)To assess the effect after application of fenugreek seed among adolescent girls.
A study was conducted to know the statistics of dandruff level in which every 5th inhabitant of our planet is acquainted with such trouble like dandruff. “Snowfall on shoulders” worries not only lower income citizens, who cannot afford themselves buying an efficient remedy or expensive shampoo, but also those, who leave fabulous sums of money in beauty shops and drug-stores.
4 Dandruff can happen at any age but is most commonly found in people between the ages of 12 and 80; however the condition mostly occurs after puberty and usually affects males more often than females. It is thought that as many of 90% of the population will at some point in their lives have a form of dandruff, but there is still a lack of total agreement about this condition.
5 Approximately 1 in 5 or 18.38% or 50 million people in USA are affected. As per statistics about forty percentage of population faces the problem of dandruff at some point in their lives. Dandruff can be caused due to several factors such as stress and anxiety, excess perspiration and humidity, improper diet, unhygienic scalp conditions and so on. (Geethu Rajan, 2011)
Several studies on the prevalence of dandruff across the world have shown a prevalence of dandruff of up to 50% in the general population. The prevalence may be increasing sharply with rapid urbanization. On the contrary, the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor is only 2-8%.  One survey in the USA has shown that about 50 million people suffer from dandruff, and that nearly $300 million is spent on various dandruff treatment products annually. And according to the researcher dandruff (pityriasis capitis, seborrheic dermatitis confined to the scalp) is a disease that has been around for centuries despite several treatment options. Almost every day new players are entering the market with various antidandruff products, perhaps due to an increase in the incidence of dandruff all over the world. Interestingly, clinicians, especially dermatologists, gave little attention to this problem. At the end, the dandruff sufferer is puzzled by the array of antidandruff products with varied claims entering the market day by day. (Manuel et al 2011)
A study was conducted on the aim to determine the most frequent skin disorders in obese female schoolchildren in primary and intermediate schools in the Al-Khobar area, Eastern Saudi Arabia and it was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Al-Khobar area which involved 2239 female schoolchildren randomly selected from 30 regular public and private primary and preparatory schools. A multi-stage stratified random sampling technique with proportional allocation was used. Data was collected using clinical examination and anthropometric measurements and the result was skin diseases that were most common in obese schoolchildren were: dandruff, acne, xerosis, acanthosis nigricans, folliculitis, alopecia, stria distensae (stretch marks) and callosity. and conclusions and recommendations was obesity is associated with specific skin disorders. Health education programs on skin diseases and obesity should be provided to all schoolchildren, their families and teachers. (Wafa et al 2009)
A study was done on comparative novel method of antifungal susceptibility for malassezia furfur and modification of culture medium by adding lipid supplement in this study introduction of new antifungal compounds has increased the demand for method of in vitro testing. The present study has proposed a new method of studying antifungal activity of different compounds by using 96 well plates. In this background, a comparative study on the efficacy of synthetic ingredients (on the basis of their performance in the market) and botanicals was carried out in-vitro against Malassezia furfur (MTCC 1765). Evaluation of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of two standard antifungal drugs (Ketoconazole and Fluconazole) available in the market against Malassezia furfur and their comparison with botanicals was done using broth microdilution method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) with slight modifications. The present work is also an attempt to standardized culture medium for growing Malassezia species by overlay of sterile cotton seed oil with principal medium. Cotton seed oil can be used as supplement with principal medium for best growth of Malassezia. Synthetics. (Amit Kumar Tiwari et al 2010)
A study was conducted to know the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological actions of trigonella foenum-graecum: and according to the Ayurveda plants are have so many constituent which may be used for the treatment of so many diseases. Herbal drugs are easily available and have fewer side effects. So many of the people are attracted towards the herbal plant drugs. Fenugreek is easily available in our kitchen and use as a drugs from oldest time. Fenugreek is used in the treatment of dandruff. Today, it is still taken by Egyptian women for menstrual pain and as hilba tea to ease stomach problems of tourists. They contain mucilage, sugars, an alkaloid- trigonellin, which is not poisonous- cholin and a scented compound. Medicinal Action and Uses of Fenugreek like Allergies, Appetite/loss of Catarrh/bronchial, Cholesterol/high, Diabetic Retinopathy, Gas, Gastric Disorders, Lung Infections, Mucus Excessive, Throat/sore, Abscesses, Anemia, Asthma, Boils, Body Odour , Bronchitis, cancer, Eyes/swollen, Fevers, Gallbladder Problems, Heartburn, Inflammation, Sinus Problems, Ulcers, Uterine Problems, Water Retention focused the investigator’s attention on this plant. (Rahul Kaushik et al 2011)
A study was conducted to know the health benefits of trigonella foenum-graecum and in which researcher states that there has been resurgence in the consumption and demand for medicinal plants. Medicinal plants are finding use as Pharmaceuticals, Neuraceuticles, Cosmetics and Food supplements. Even as Traditional source of medicinal and they continue to play pivotal role. Fenugreek was used for relief of dandruff and to ease childbirth, increase milk flow. It is still taken by Egyptian women for menstrual pain and as hilba tea to ease stomach problems of tourists. Seed of fenugreek contain, an Medicinal Action and Uses of Fenugreek like Allergies, Appetite/loss of Catarrh/bronchial, Cholesterol/ high, Diabetic Retinopathy, Gas, Gastric Disorders, Lung Infections, Mucus Excessive, Throat/sore, Abscesses, Anaemia, Asthma, Boils, Body Odour , Bronchitis, cancer, Eyes/swollen, Fevers, Gallbladder Problems, Heartburn, Inflammation, Sinus Problems, Ulcers, Uterine Problems, Water Retention focused the investigator’s attention on this plant. (Rashmi yadav et al 2009)
A study on evaluation of antidandruff activity and safety of fenugreek seed. This study was an open, non-comparative, non-randomized, phase III clinical trial, approved by Institutional Ethics Committee. Twenty-five patients of both sexes, from the age group of 20-45 years, who were clinically diagnosed as suffering from mild to moderate dandruff, and who were willing to give informed consent were enrolled in the study. Patients with severe hair fall due to endocrine disorders, patients with scanty hair and those with severe scalp skin infection were excluded from the study. All enrolled patients underwent a thorough clinical examination, with special emphasis on local scalp skin examination. All adverse events reported or observed by patients were recorded with information about severity. Statistical analysis was done according to intention-to-treat principles. The minimum level of significance was fixed at 99% confidence limit and a 2-sided p value of <0.0001 was considered significant. (Vyjayanthi et al2004)
A study was conducted in which dandruff has an altered stratum corneum ultrastructure that is improved with application of fenugreek seed. Transmission electron microscopy of scalp tape strips indicates that dandruff scalp possesses abnormal stratum corneum (SC) ultrastructure that is normalized by treatment of fenugreek seed paste. Similar abnormalities occur throughout the scalp of those with dandruff, even where no flaking is present. Stratum corneum abnormalities are consistent with hyperproliferation, including parakeratosis, lipid droplets within corneocytes, few desmosomes, corneocyte membrane interdigitation, and excessive disorganized intercellular lipid. Reversal of Stratum corneum abnormalities would require treatment of the cause(s) of dandruff, not merely flake removal. A protocol protocol was used to compare dandruff and normal Stratum corneum to dandruff SC treated with natural remedies like application of fenugreek seed paste treatment with fenugreek seed paste significantly returned SC ultrastructure to normal, suggesting control of the cause of dandruff. (Ronald R Warner et al 2006)
A study states that the anti-fungal activity of different concentrations of fenugreek Malasseizia furfur from hair dandruff.In this study researcher compared the antifungal activity of different concentrations of fenugreek germinated seeds extract to check the right concentration effective against dandruff. Two methods namely Disk diffusion method, Pour Plating and Colony Counting method were used. Our study demonstrated that the extract 0.035g/ml (1ml of extract and 3 ml of water (1:4) )was found to be more effective in declining the growth of dandruff causing fungus Malassezia furfur. Concluding that,the use of fenugreek extract was functional in inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. (Vibha Verma 2011).
A study was conducted on herbal vs. chemical substances as antidandruff ingredients and emphasise on dandruff, a clinical condition caused by Malassezia (Pityrosporum) species is of great cosmetic concern all over the world. Dandruff is known to be controlled by fungistatic ingredients in Anti-dandruff shampoos. A comparative study on the efficacy of chemical and herbal anti-dandruff ingredients on 'as is' basis and their performance in market shampoos was done in vitro against Pityrosporum ovale, Zinc pyrithione (ZnPTO), ketoconazole and other azole compounds recorded good anti-Pityrosporum activity among the chemical ingredients. Herbal ingredients like Fenugreek seed,tea tree oil, rosemary oil, coleus oil, clove oil, pepper extract, neem extract, and basil extract also recorded anti-pityrosporum activity, but their MIC values are much higher than the synthetic ingredients. Shampoos containing ZnPTO and ketoconazole recorded higher in vitro activities than the shampoos containing herbal AD ingredients. (Prabha manju et al 2009)
One group with pre test design and post test design was adopted for this study.
SETTING: The setting of the study was Women’s Hostel, Coimbatore. Hostel which is situated in the hospital premises itself, Students from pharmacy, Physiotherapy, Arts and Science and Nursing are staying in the hostel. The study was conducted for a period of one month.
The population for the present study was adolescent girls with mild, moderate and severe stages of dandruff.
SAMPLING AND SAMPLE SIZE:
The total number of samples for the study was 9 clients who were having dandruff from a prolonged period of time. Simple random sampling technique was used as per inclusion criteria
Inclusion Criteria: Adoloscent girls who are staying in hostel and Adolescent girls who are having dandruff between 13-19 years of age.
Exclusion Criteria: Adolescent girls who are taking medications for dandruff and Adoloscent girls who are having scalp disorders
DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE:
Samples were selected by general observation of scalp. The need and the purpose of the study was explained to the samples. The researcher explained about the causes, etiology, risk factors and the various aspects of disease condition using pamphlets .Then the samples were taken to Dr. Parthiban Consultant Dermatologist and Cosmetologist, Life Care Medical Centre Hospital, Ganapathy. He analysed scalp of all 9 samples with scalp analyser. With analyser he differentiated the level of dandruff as mild, moderate and severe. After the application of fenugreek seed paste for 6 times again samples were referred by him to know the level of dandruff.
METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS:
Scoring was given to each sample. Mean and standard deviation was calculated and ’t’ value was done and the data was analysed, categorised and interpreted in tables. Appropriate stratified techniques were applied to analyse the data to find out the significance.
Among 50 participants, 22.223 of participants were in age group 20 years, 44.445% participants were in the age group of 21 years and 33.333% of participants were in the age group of 22 years.
Amount 09 Participants 55.556% were suffering from dandruff for less than 6 months 44.444% were suffering from dandruff for more than 6 months.
The mean value for pretest was 1.88. The value for standard deviation for pre test was 0.59. The mean value for post test is 0.99. The mean difference is 0.55. 't' test was used to test the significance of mean difference at 0.05 level of significance in the dandruff level; among adolescent girls after application of fenugreek seed. The calculated T-value 3.145 is greater than the Table value. This shows that there is a significance difference in the mean level of pre-test and post test scores.
COMPARISON BETWEEN PRETEST AND POST TEST
The above table shows that following inferences. The mean value for the pretest was 1.88. The value for standard deviation for pre test was 0.59. The mean difference is 0.55.
Dandruff is the one of the major problem among adolescent, because it may give negative component of facial index .Application of fenugreek seed paste is one of the non pharmacological therapy can be performed anywhere, requires no special equipment, is non invasive, cost effective. Hence it is natural herb and good solution for dandruff which helps in killing a type of fungus which causes dandruff.
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Received on 18.02.2014 Modified on 12.04.2014
Accepted on 20.04.2014 © A&V Publication all right reserved